Course Objectives: To understand principles of various materials characterization techniques. Compare advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Recognize practical consideration and limitations of each technique.


Introduction: Classification of techniques for characterization of materials, macro and micro-characterization structure of solids, Destructive and non-destructive testing of solid.

Microscopy: Optical microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM); Basic Electron scattering, Concepts of resolution, TEM instruments, various imaging modes, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

X-ray Diffraction: Basics, powder x-ray diffraction, Phase identification, indexing, crystallite size, lattice parameter determination.

Spectroscopy: Interaction of radiation and matter, UV-visible, FTIR, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy Basic concept, Spectrophotometer design, working principle and applications in materials characterization.

Thermal Analysis Techniques: Differential thermal analysis (DTA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) Principal, design and working and analysis of thermograms.

Laboratory Work:

Metallographic preparation and examination of steel samples; Determination of crystal structure and lattice parameters using X-rays diffraction technique. Study of phase diagrams using cooling curves; Determination of crystal structure and lattice parameter from electron diffractions; Study of viscoelastic transition in polymers employing ultrasonic technique; To study of their absorption spectra of glass samples; To study the glass transition temperature using DSC; To Determine the activation energy of glass sample employing DTA; To study the thermal expansion coefficient of various specimen using dilatometer.


Micro Project: Students will perform a micro project on capabilities and limitations of various materials characterization techniques.

Course Learning Outcomes (CLO):

Students will be able to:

1.      recognize the various types of materials characterization techniques, and be able to relate them to the principles of fundamental physics and chemistry.

2.      select advanced analytical techniques and apply them to characterization of different materials under various analysis conditions.

3.      analyse, interpret and mutually correlate data to arrive at meaningful conclusions.





Text Books:

1.      W.W. Wendlandt, Thermal Analysis (Third Edition); John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

2.      B. Raj, T. Jayakumar, M. Thavasimuthu, Practical Non-Destructive Testing; Narosa Publishers, 2002.

3.      John B. Wachtman, Z.H. Kalman, Characterization of Materials; Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1993.


Reference Books:

1.      Characterization of Materials (Materials Science and Technology: A Comprehensive Treatment, Vol. 2A & 2B, VCH, 1992.

2.      D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization; Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006.

3.      S Zhang, L. Li and Ashok Kumar, Materials Characterization Techniques; CRC Press, 2008.