Course Objectives:

1.      To impart knowledge about electrical substation equipment.

2.      To explain busbar systems and layouts and their comparison

3.      To discuss substation protection systems

4.      To discuss substation earthing practices

5.      To introduce EHVAC and HVDC substations


Introduction to Electrical Substation: General Background, Functions of a Substation, Substation Layouts, Busbar Schemes, Types of Substations, Substation Equipment,


Busbar Systems and Layouts: Introduction, Configuration Concept, Requirements of A Busbar System, Busbar Systems: Single Busbar, Single Sectionalized Busbar, Double Busbar, Bus-Coupler, Duplicate Bus Scheme with Double Circuit Breaker, Breaker and A Half Scheme, Duplicate Bus and A Transfer Bus, Ring Bus, Three Switch Busbar System for A Through Feeder, Comparison of Busbar Schemes.


Insulation Co-Ordination And Surge Arresters: Over voltages and their Significance, Insulation Level of an Equipment, Insulation Co-ordination of a Substation, Lighting Over voltages and Protection of Substation Equipment, Switching Over voltages in EHV Substations, Switching  Over  voltage in Medium Voltage Substations, Surge Arresters, Rating of Surge Arrester, Calculation of Discharge Current for Shielded Substations, Installation as Surge Arresters, Protection of Substation Transformers by Surge Arresters, Overhead  Shielding Screen, Protective Angle, Insulation Coordination between New Z  O Arresters and old Gapped Sic Arresters in Adjacent Substations.


Substation Earthing systems: Functional Requirements of Earthing System, Equipment Earthing, Neutral Point Earthing, Substation Earthing System, Dimensioning of Earth Conductors, Step Potential and Touch Potential, Earth Mat, Resistance of Earthing System, Values of Soil Resistivity, Fencing, Procedure of Laying Earthing Mat, Measurement of Earthing Resistance.


Power Cables and Control Cables: Power Cables, Types of Conventional Power Cables, Laying of Power Cables, Control Cables, Principles of Control Cable Installation, Sensitivity of Various Loads to interference, Measuring Cables, Grounding of Cable Trays, Ducts, Electrical Noise, Techniques of Protecting Sensitive Measuring, Protection and Control Equipment from Over-voltages.


Protection, Control and Automation in Substations: Control Panels, Protective Relaying in Substations, Power Transformer Protection, Bus Zone Protection, Protection of Transmission Lines, Carrier Assisted Distance Protection, Control and Automation, Fault Dignostics.


HVDC and EHV AC Substations: Layout of a HVDC Substation, A.C. Switchyard, A.C. Harmonic Filter Area, Convertor- transformers, Valve Hall and Control Room, HVDC Yard, D.C. Smoothing Reactors, Earth Return, D.C, Breaker and Load break switches, Electrical and mechanical auxiliaries, Operating HVDC Back to Back Coupling Stations, EHVAC Substations, Configuration of EHV-AC Transmission System, circuit breakers, Earthed Screens, Power transformers, Compensation of Reactive Power.

Course Learning Outcomes (CLO):

On the completion of the course, the student will be able

1.      To identify substation equipment.

2.      To make comparison in design and installations of EHVAC and HVDC substations.

3.      To conceptualise the substation earthing and measurement of earthing resistance

4.      To understand the automatic protection system practices in substation


Recommended Books:

1.    John D. McDonald, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Second Edition, CRC Press, (2007)

2.    A.S. Pabla, Electric Power Distribution, 6th ed., Tata McGraw Hill, (2011).

3.    Paul Gill, Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing, Second Edition, CRC press, (2008)