Course Objectives:

1.      To understand the role of signal conditioning in the field of real time control applications.

2.      To investigate the importance of data acquisition system and the need of SCADA system

3.      To understand the importance of state estimation and its effect

4.      To familiarize the main features of smart grid and its applications.

5.      To understand the concept of micro grid, virtual power plant.


Introduction: Static and Dynamic characteristics, Error analysis; transducers &sensors, Role of instrumentation in monitoring, control & industrial automation


Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers, Multiplexers & dividers, Timer multiplexers, Signal converters, ADC and DAC, Signal conditioning, Digital signal conditioning, Transmission of digital signals, Telemetry methods and errors, PLCC, AM, FM, PAM, PWM, PCM Techniques.


Data Acquisition System: Role of dedicated computers, analog and digital control, Computer systems for real time applications, Distributed and supervisory control, its organization and structure, Centralized, Hierarchical and decentralized control schemes, Man machine interface, Energy management system.


State Estimation: Method of least-squares, State estimation of AC network, Detection and identification of bad measurements, Network observability & pseudo measurements, multi-area state estimation, forecast-aided state estimation. Wide area monitoring systems.


Real Time Control Applications:  Conditioning and acquisition of drive and relay signals, Energy management system applications like AGC, VAR Control, State estimation, Security monitoring, Load management. digital relaying, Power plant instrumentation.


Smart Grids: Objectives and main features of smart grid; applications – new products, new consumer paradigm, communication requirements for smart grids, Monitoring, Network protocol development and performance evaluation for smart grids, Concept of Micro Grid, Smart metering, Virtual Power Plant,


Course Learning Outcomes (CLO):

On the completion of the course, the student will be able

1.      To understand the SCADA organization and structure.

2.      To implement the concept of state estimation, multi-area state estimation.

3.      To understand the smart grid concepts and its application

4.      To familiarise with the concept of smart grid, micro grid, smart metering and virtual power plant






Recommended Books

1.        Torsten Cegrell “Power System Control Technology”, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited (1986).

2.        Kusic C. L., “Computer Aided Power System Analysis”, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited (2007).

3.        Wood A. J. and Wollenberg B. “Power generation operation and control”, John Wiley and Sons (2007).

4.        Cerni R.H and Foster L.E., “Instrumentation for Engineering Management”, John Wiley and Sons (1962).